engVid quiz

Test your understanding of this English lesson

Test your understanding of the English lesson by answering these questions. You will get the answers and your score at the end of the quiz.



Hi Adam, thank you very much . My score 7 of 10 , really it was difficult for me. And also i would like to ask you make a video about the words” trouble, worry, molest, push you, bother, bore” sometimes i misuse these words, Thank you in advance


    Hi Katy,

    These words are a little random for a lesson. Can you give me some context for these in terms of when they give you trouble? maybe I can help here.


      Hi Adam, do you have a speaking class on Skype ?


        Hi Metta,

        I’m sorry, I don’t teach at the moment.


      Hello Adam. I wish to impruve upon my English in speaking, pronunciation and grammer.Can you help me with it? I want to it very much!


        Hi Svetlana,

        I’ll do my best :)


          Oh… I am verry happy. Can you speak with me on Skype?


          hi svetlana can you shere your skype ?


          I want to speak with native speaker. It’s very important to me. Oh, it’s fantastic.


          Hi Svetlana,

          I’m sorry if there was a misunderstanding. I don’t do Skype lessons, but I will be happy to help out here as much as a I can.


      Hi Adam,
      Thanks for the tips. I am preparing for a TOEFL exam, so the lecture is helpful. I got all the 10 quizzes correct.


      Hi Adam.
      Hope doing well.
      Is it possible to give more questions here? I want to exercise more.
      With regards.


HI Adam Thanks for to day Quiz i got just 6 of 10, it was difficult
Thanks Again

venkatesh shetty

    Same the quiz was complicated, especially, since i am not a native speaker.


So difficult. It was the worst quiz I ever did.
Still, thanks a lot Adam, but I’m a little bet confused about number 8, why it is complex ?


    Same for me. But this kind of analyse is difficult even on my natural language. Real advanced class.


      you are absolutely right. Waiting for Adam, we’ll get some help


        Hello,just give you my understandings for NO.8 :)
        “Phil organized the meeting” is the only one independent clause and the rest are dependent. “1 in +2 de = complex”.
        Hope it makes sense!


          thanks a lot, but the point is that why “Phil organized the meeting” is the only one ??


        I am absolutely sure, that there are two independent clauses:
        1.Phill organized the meeting
        2.Jan took care ot the catering


          That’s what I’m talking about


    This sentence is complexe because there is “while” and “which” and there is three subjects and verbs.


      I agree


        I do not agree with bahlaek. Instead of ‘while’ you can put ‘and’ and we have two independent clauses


    Hi Reemabousaid,

    Nice discussion here :)
    I’ll break in apart for you:

    Phil organized the meeting- independent clause
    while Jan took care of the catering- dependent clause (adverb) showing that Jan did this at the same time. Emo53 is correct to say that we can use and instead of while, but then it would be a different sentence.

    which turned out to be the most memorable part of the afternoon.- dependent clause (adjective)

    so… 1 ind. clause and 2 dep. clauses.= complex

    Does this help?


      Yes it does … Thanks a lot Adem ..It was cleared When you said that if we replace while with and, it will be a different sentence.


    Hi Reemabousaid,

    Excuse me , but are you a Teacher English ?


      Hi Immirgant,
      no, I’m not English teacher
      I am an Engineer


        iam also an engineer and have difficulties in english speaking and writing…


      Hi Immirgant,
      no, I’m not an English teacher
      I am an Engineer


Thank you very much Adam!!
Despite your excellent explanation, the topic is really difficult :S
I think I should try the test again this afernoon


A lot of letters.
%) too difficult.


Hello Adam. Could you tell about participles in detail? It would be very helpful for many your subscribers I guess. Thanky!

Greg Sher

    Hi Greg,

    It’s a bit too complicated for this forum, but I will definitely make a video about it.


Adam, thank you very much. Your lessons are great as always!!!!


Hi Adam.I watched your lessons on YouTube many times.But today is 2nd time I visit this site and it’s really improve my english. I have poor knowledge about english. Please help me to learn English.

Dilshad Sazia

    Come back again and again Dilshad. It takes time, but you will improve, I’m sure. :)


Hi Adam. How difficult your test is! I’m also a little confused about No.8. I think ‘while’ is a conjunction. Do I misunderstand that?


    ‘While’ is a subordinating conjunction, NOT a coordination conjunction like ‘or, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so’. The function of a subordinating conjunction ‘while’ and the dependent clause ‘while Jan took care of the catering’ is to establish an adverb of time for the independent clause ‘Phil organized the meeting’.

    Here is a list of common subordinating conjunctions:

    as soon as
    by the time
    even if
    even though
    every time
    in case in order that
    in the event that
    just in case
    now that
    only if
    provided that
    rather than
    so that
    whether or not


      Thank you very much for your kindness, Lfabian2013.


      Thanks Lfablan2013. Good job :)


    Hi Boonpa,

    Yes, while is a conjunction, but it is not a coordinating conjunction. It is an adverb conjunction showing that two things happened at the same time.

    Only FANBOYS (for, and, nor, but,or, yet, so) are coordinating conjunctions and join two independent clauses.

    Does this help?


      FANBOYS – I don’t know if this is more interesting or useful acronym!


Hi adam,The quiz was difficult for me :) even though I enjoyed that.i’m little bit confused that’s why i’m going to study more to fix that.
Thx a lots for this lesson.


:-( next time !


Hi Adam.
I appreciate your teaching style (intelligible with details).
Please don’t Smoke for your own good.
Quiting is very hard but you can do it.
We all believe in you Adam.

Mohsen Barati

    Thank you Mohsen :) I’m working on it


Mmmmm…I have to listen to your lesson with much attention.
Thanks, Adam


ohhhh thank you so much Adam that is very important for me


ADAM , I have been 2 years watching your lessons your actually the best instructor that I had ever seen , and I got several information that providing me to be professional :) thanks ever such a lot for everything ad I wish you give us More :D

Mohammed soliman

Thank you, Adam, now I know I need to go back and learn simple Grammar first. This site is very helpful, so glad I found it.


The quiz was hard. I will have to watch the video again. Thanks, teacher Adam. It´s really useful, because it seems I have forgot that lesson from university.


Adam, Can you elaborate answers for question 4 and question 8 please? which part of the sentence is independent clause in question 4? what is the main idea for question 8? Is it Phil organized the meeting?


    No.4 : Regardless of his intentions, what James did constitutes a crime.
    INDEPENDENT CLAUSE: subject (dependent noun clause) + constitues a crime.
    DEPENDENT NOUN CLAUSE: ‘What James did’ functions as a subject of the sentence.

    No.8: Phil organized the meeting while Jan took care of the catering, which turned out to be the most memorable part of the afternoon.
    INDEPENDENT or MAIN CLAUSE: ‘Phil organized the meeting’
    DEPENDENT ADVERB CLAUSE: ‘while Jane took care of the catering’ ‘ is to establish an adverb of time for the independent clause.
    DEPENDENT ADJECTIVE CLAUSE: ‘which turned out to be the most memorable part of the afternoon’ modifies the noun ‘catering’

    *Yes, the main idea contains in the main clause.


    Hi Oeoeoe,

    Lfablan gave a good answer. I’ll just a dd a bit:
    Regardless of his intentions– introductory phrase (no sub or verb)
    what James did– noun clause as subject
    constitutes a crime.– verb and object

    Does this help?


      That you replied in 2016 answers my question in 2020.
      A complex sentence type.
      That you replied in 2016 – Noun clause as a subject
      answers my question in 2020 – verb and object

      Really helpful!


btw, Should I say elaborate on answers? :(


    very usuful lesson and i hope know more friends from this site to speak english more and more on facebook or e-mail something like that. thanks imobeta


    Yes :)


It was very complicated for me!
And it was the worst quiz I ever did, as well.


Admittedly, this is a hard lesson learned. This is one of the most difficult lessons that I’ve never learned, Adam. I don’t know what I would do this quiz without you.
I’d like to thank you so much for this interesting lesson. All the best, Adam. :)


Thanks,Adam!Good stuff!ihave a question though.in one of your examples on the board (with 4 independent clauses) you didn’t put comma before “so” but in the test sentence you did.clear my doubts,please.


    Good question Antonmakh,

    As with the other conjunctions, there are situations that require a comma and situations that don’t.

    Also, remember that sometimes the adverb conjunction ‘so that’ is reduced to just ‘so’.

    I paid for the drinks so you can pay for the meal.(related ideas)
    I had too many drinks, so it would be better if we took a cab home. (two separate ideas)
    I drank too much so (that) I wouldn’t have to drive (I deliberately drank to be unsafe).

    Do these examples help?


      Thanks, Adam!Sorry for not having been online.Helpful examples.


I did well!


Hello Adam ,
I have got 90 . I have understood my mistake , but I confess that it is not easy.
In the lesson you wrote a compound sentence with “so” but without a comma before . Is it ok ?
In my question I didn’t put a comma before “but” , because there is no verb after . Am I right ?
Thank Adam


    Hi Tsamp,

    Coordinating conjunctions don’t always need a comma before them, especially if the two ideas in each clause are directly related.

    Anyway, this seems to be a little confusing for some people. Check out this video by James. I hope it helps.:



Aside the great lesson,does anyone know if Adam is married or not?)


    engVid Moderator

      nice cat

      fatima bb

    I’m not! You are the apple of my eye, Marianna! :D


Hi Adam,
Could you explain the 8th question one more time, please. Maybe I was confused and mixed it up. I think I couldn’t identify the independent clauses and dependent clauses clearly.
For me, I have two independent clauses, such as:
– “Phil organized the meeting.”
– “(while) Jan took care of the catering.”
And one dependent clause:
-“which turned out to be the most memorable part of the afternoon.”
One more question, in this case, I’d like to know, the “while” is a conjunction, and the “which” is a pronoun?
Thank you very much indeed. My best to you, Adam. :)


    You are right.


      Hi nour2,
      No, I was wrong! hi hi hi… I just got an answer from Adam. As we know, English grammar can be tough; even people who enjoy reading and writing could have a difficult time getting all the rules.
      Anyway, I’d like to thank you for your nice comment. Good luck with your English studies.:)


    Hi Chloe,

    Here it is:

    Phil organized the meeting- independent clause

    while Jan took care of the catering- dependent clause (adverb) showing that Jan did this at the same time or for her part.

    which turned out to be the most memorable part of the afternoon.- dependent clause (adjective)

    so… 1 ind. clause and 2 dep. clauses.= complex

    Does this help?


      Yes, It does. Thank you for your explanation, Adam. :)


it’s pretty hard..
i don’t get the lesson..
my quiz is horrible


It’s so difficult for me. Thank you Adam


Adam, great lesson, thanks

I got 100 %. By the way, sentence types are similar in the Russian language. Having learned Russian helped me to figure out this in English.


Just watched the lesson. In my opinion the explanation is unclear and complicated, really hard to get. Things like that better learnt by reading english books. It helps a lot to get accustomed to long and complicated sentences.


really complex course.

Anyway, thanks Adam.


Thanks Adam,Can you explain this lesson by another way.


    I’ll see what I can do Nour :)


      I agree with nour2, Adam. See if you can make another video on this, or at least some complement in order to make it clearer.


Thank you Adam.The lesson is really complex. In fourth question, “regardless of his intention” isn’t phrase ?


    HI Anahit,

    Yes, it is a phrase (no sub or verb).


Adam!!! It was a little difficult but it was interesting. Thank you very much.


Thanks Adam! I already make my donation for the engvid because you and Ronnie. :-)


    Thank you Kantynho :)


Thanks for the lesson and the quiz. It wasn’t easy..and I surely need to catch up with my English grammer now..


Thanks Adam, this is a very good lesson. Even i got a really bad score I am sure it will help me a lot. I guess I have to watch this video two more times.


5/10 I need to learn more. Thanks Adam


Thank you Adam.


Thank you very much. Very good explanation. I got 9/10.




No way! I’ll never pass this quiz! It’s too difficult for me… I wouldn’t have passed such a quiz even in my native language.


Hello professor Adam,
I hope everything goes well with you.
There is a question which keeps my mind busy for days. I’ve tried to find your mail adress and send the question directly to you, but I couldn’t. Anyway, is there any chance for me to clarify the difference between the following sentences and give me and example for each one?
1- Next two weeks
2- Two next week

Mohamad Hosein

    Hi Mohamed,

    Neither of these is a sentence actually. They are prepositions at best:

    I’ll be in Miami for the next two weeks and then I’ll go to New York.

    The second example can’t really be used as is. Unless you are using 2 as a quantity:

    I’ll take one this week, and if I like it, I’ll order two next week.

    Does this help?


      Yes sir,
      I really appreciate it.

      Mohamad Hosein

Hi Adam, Thank for this great lesson.
Hi guys, In my opinion, It wasn’t an easy lesson if you didn’t know:
= Clauses
= Conjunctions
= Phrases
= General grammar
I would like to suggest an amazing book which cover everything about writing.
Author: Oshima, Alice.
Title: Writing academic English
Edition 4th ed with answers
This book is for you!I have completed this book last year and I loved it.
Cheers, Thiago from Brasil


    Thanks for the tip Learner :)


Thanks for the test) It was quite easy despite the fact that my score is 8 out 10 but I`ve got my mistakes.
During the lecture, I was comparing the English and Ukrainian approaches of defining sentence types and can tell that they have a lot in common.

Natalya Fleytuta



Thanks for the wonderful explanation!!!!!


hello my friends my name is Aisami Isa Bukar from Nigeria


    Welcome Aisami :)


I’m interested in learn English language thank to engvid


It’s too difficult for me, but I will practice it.


Ugly sentences.
But thank you, Adam for nice advanced topic.


This may sound a bit weird to you, but I want to ask a question. Before I start the video your pullover seems blue but right after I start the video the pullover is white. Why is that so??? :)))


    :) A slight editing problem, I think


I assume this lesson is fo


It’s for advanced students , so that thank you Adam and we really need more of the sort.

My Skype account name for practicing is:Anwar.aimefrance


is it a correct sentence—-
I have been suffering from fever since last two days therefore I am unable to attend my class.

anil bisht

    Hi Anil,

    I have been suffering from a fever for the last two days, therefore I am unable to attend my class.


      Is this a compound sentence?

      Nan Lan Lan

Hi Adam, how r u doing. I’m zaheer. I’m wondering for the difference between an interrogative adjective and an interrogative pronoun, though they mean the same but they h’ve different positions to use, As “Whose coat is this?” and “Whose is this coat?” i know the basic difference b/w two, but i just want to know that if they are placed at different positions then certainly there would be some difference… i’ve asked lots of people but none gave me an appropriate answer pertaining to the question… hope u’ve got my point…


    Hi Zaheer,

    I understand the question, but to tell the truth, the second sample is not very common. Essentially it means “whose coat is this coat?” making the second ‘coat’ redundant.In that case, you would only be left with whose coat is this?

    What time is it?
    What is the time?
    These basically mean the same thing.

    Think of other examples:
    If you ask, I’ll be happy to tell you.
    I’ll be happy to tell you if you ask.

    Same meaning, but you can make an argument for nuance. But that’s the English language–full of subtleties.

    Not sure this helps though. Is this what you had in mind?


      certainly it did sir…
      and thank you very much for your kindness


        hi sir, would u please let me know what is the difference between “AT THE END” & “IN THE END” i’ve read in a book but i couldn’t get it well. the definition that book gives is that when we use (AT THE END= the time when something stops)
        and (IN THE END= finally) still i’m feeling lots of hurdles in getting them, it just does not clear the concept yet.i request you please have a kind look into this question…


          Please contact me at this No: 03222641783…
          I am interested to learn English; we may have a group work……. We will be learning together..

          Barkat Basham

Hi! in the question 8 it seemed to me that there were 2 indipendent clauses and 1 dependent, weren’t they?


    Hi Raffaeladamore,

    Here it is:

    Phil organized the meeting- independent clause

    while Jan took care of the catering- dependent clause (adverb) showing that Jan did this at the same time or for her part. (while is a subordinating conjunction, not a coordinating conjunction)

    which turned out to be the most memorable part of the afternoon.- dependent clause (adjective)

    so… 1 ind. clause and 2 dep. clauses.= complex

    Does this help?


Can you make a lesson about all types of phrase? Thank You


    I’ll get on it :)


I think we need more videos about english sentence types :(


Hello Adams,

Could you please give us a lesson with the mixed conditional (Past / present. It would help me to understand because I have some hesitation with the 3rt conditional which I always want to use. Thank you in advance


    Hi Meuwis,

    It’s on the way ;)


Hi Adam. First of all, thanks for taking the time to record this class, it’s very helpful indeed.
Could you please describe a full justification in the answer of each exercise? For example, if the correct answer has 1 independent clause and 2 dependent clauses, I’d like to know what was the independent and what were the dependents as well. It’d be tremendously useful to me and I believe to others too.


    Hi Javando,

    I’ll see what I can do about that. Any particular question to start with?


So nice… however my score only 5 but I think this is the best exercise to improve grammar ability. I can say thank you enough :-)


    I can’t say thank you enough.. Sir.


Dear Adam you are a greet man, Many thanks for all.

Cafer 14

OMG!!! 10 of 10!!! ))


Thank You Adam! It has really helped me.


Hi Adama! We are students and we are studing to take the TOEFL. Thanks a lot for your lessons!


Thanks Adam, quite a tough lesson… I need to watch it again !!


This lesson was Very difficult for me
I got 3 correct out of 10.


Hi teacher, i don’t understand about grammar of “being the nasty” ?And Suppose my sentence is “That’s why learning English is so important” . What part is independent clause ?



    Hi Demontaihack,

    I’m not sure I understand the part of the question about being and nasty.

    As for the sentence,
    That is — subject and verb
    why learning English is so important– noun clause as Sub complement

    ind clause is technically the whole sentence.

    Does this help?


I find usefull your every single sharing. thnx.


Hi how are u
Hej ADAM i am sorry bothering but whenever u havE a spare time could u pls checking an exercise for me pls but i can not post here cuz is with photo could u pls send me ur email . I just wanna make sure if they are wrong. IN fact my teacher did but he didnt convice me therefore i would like to know ur opinion about it .


    Hi Agnesebalaj,

    As much as I would like to help, I get too many requests to check samples that I just can’t do it for everyone.

    If you put a sentence or two, I can give you some tips.


      hi Adam
      yes i know that u spent ur precious time checking our samples ok i am gonna write here,even though thnx a lot.
      I HAD THE EXERCISE TO DIFFRENCIATE PHRASES(N,V,P etc)structrally and functionally depending from a sentence above.SENTENCE IS: the people living here may face great problems while earning money for their bare lives.
      he divided this sentence in this way (in fact the others he marked(tick)but sonme(wrong)
      their bare lives(functionally)i did Direct object he said it is wrong.
      living there(structurally) i did verb phrase (he said wrong)whereas functionally(i wrote subject-because in sentence may stay as a subject ex.living here may face greatproblems. about (living here)-he claimed that is adjunct but i dont think so.
      and last one:for their bare lives(functionally) i did object of prep(he claimed that is adjunct
      because structurally is PP.
      Whenever u have time repy on it :)/
      thnx in advance


Adam thank you for the lesson. Please help me.
I can’t understand what color is BLUE. In Wikipedia there is an explanation that BLUE is a color between green and violet. But we have argue with my friends all the time about BLUE EYES, BLUE SKY etc. (I think the eyes are light blue, so the sky but the sea is blue or dark blue) Thanks.


    But in the rainbow there are colors BLUE and INDIGO that makes me confused. So now it seems to me that blue means bright color and closer to the green.


      google translater doesn’t help…


    Hi Katrin,

    Not really sure how to answer this in words. There are many shades and hues of blue. The sea, sky, and this website are all blue. Some eyes are blue, some are green, some are brown, etc.

    There is navy blue, royal blue, baby blue, powder blue, midnight blue, etc.

    There are three prime colours: red, blue, and yellow. Blue and yellow mixed will make the secondary colour green.

    Does this help?


      Thank you Adam. So blue might be any hue between green and violet…


you were asked about it by me.
What does the above sentence mean?
Please give explanation

Thank you

Naga Kumar

    Hi Naga,

    It means “I asked you about it.”


Hi! I want to ask number 5 . You mentioned “or” is as a conjunction how could this sentence is simple. Thanks!


    Hi Springrose,

    Remember that a clause must contain a subject and verb. You only have one of each in question 5. Here, or goes with either…or– showing a choice, not a conjunction of two clauses. There is only one independent clause in this example.

    Does this help?



Ahmed Salman

i have just registered in engvid becuse of your lessons thank you
thank you it was useful

Ahmed Salman

    Welcome Ahmed :)


Please post a video on how to write APA format and citations


Thank you, Adam.This lesson is good, but I need to study harder in order to get better.


I failed this subject in college, Thanks for the lesson




Thank you very much, Adam, for this challenging lesson of grammar!

I have chosen the wrong alternative for the question 5.

Is there the reduced dependent clause concept in English? In Portuguese, there is this type of clause which is written with infinitive or gerund verb forms to represent, for instance, a final adverbial dependent clause using an verb in infinitive form.

Something similiar to the following:

We sent Bill to reinforcement classes in order that he seriously studies math. -> We sent Bill to reinforcement classes in order to seriously study math.

Fabio Cicerre

    Hi Fcicerre,

    We have participles (active and passive) that are reduced clauses (adj or adv). As far as infinitives, we can use these as complements.

    I will try to make a lesson about these soon. ;)


      Thanks Adam for the explanation — I can perfectly understand it now!

      I’ll be waiting for this lesson, if you have time for it. I can imagine this as an advanced, but important, subject to the writing tasks.

      Fabio Cicerre

This lesson seems COMPOUND-COMPLEX but infact it’s SIMPLE!….
Thank you teacher Adam.


Hello thanks for this lesson,And I’d like to make a suggestion could you make lessons for business words please?


    Hi Mustafa,

    I will certainly add to the library, but there are already quite a few lessons on EngVid. Type business into the search box at the top of the page and you will see some.


So complex to me.. but, I am going to learn, Thanks


Thanks a lot Mr Adam the lesson is somewhat difficult but I enjoined it. I need to work hard to fix my mstakes


Than you everyone. I know this was a difficult lesson, but one day this stuff will also seem easy. Keep in mind, though that this is very important for writing and reading.


Thank you very much for the lesson. Could you please make a lesson about sequence of tense forms in complex sentences. How to correctly use a tense form for a dependent clause.Thanks in advance)


    I’ll get on it Ismail :)


Hallo! Something is wrong, I can not see none of the lessons. They are not loaded. In the video window only white field. Although I used to be able to watch them. I have already rebooted my computer but nothing has changed.


    I’ll pass this on to the technical team Llnara.


Dear Adem,
I’m ESL student and lam looking forward to completing benchmark 6 in writing. could you give me advice which helps me to enhance my writing in a paragraph.


    Hi Ali,

    Check out my writing site:


    I hope it helps a little.


Hi Adam, could u please explain the difference between comma and semicolons.


    Hi Hardeep,

    A semicolon is somewhere between a period and a comma. It can also be used as a conjunction instead of and.

    I’ll make a lesson about this.


Dear Mr Adam, My score is 10/10 but its difficult for me! Could you please make a another lesson like this!

I really appreciated you!


    Will do Anita :)


I am not Advanced enough for this lesson but I really appreciated the pedagogical skill of the teacher. It was easy to understand but the quizz was too difficult for me.
I’ll start again in a few months.
Thank you.


Hi Teacher Adam. I have got difficulties with complex sentence… İ confused noun, adjective, adverb clauses…What that means?

Atash Muhammadi

    HI Atash,

    I’ll make lessons about each one separately.


Can you make some video about the use of “It” and “This” to recall some idea?
I’ve been making so much mistakes using it, at least in my country it is so confused


    I’ll see what can do Cec90’s


Take it easy. What you intend to taught?: ‘compound, complex, simple, or what’. Grammar is important, yes. Your explanations don’t help.
Are you learning another language? You should.
Think of your Mandarin would be with a teacher like you. You’ll never ever would be able to talk Mandarin.
BTW, do you know what the pus-que-parfait is in French or the pluscuamperfecto is in Spanish?
Try to explain Spanish grammar like you do. Spanish will vanish.
Thanks a lot ‘teacher’?


    Ok :)


Hi Adam! I have a question.

“My assistant came 10 minutes later”
Is it really independent sentence? Ten minutes later than what?


    Hi Taus,

    Later is not correct here. Late would be ok.


Hi,Teacher I have currently joined engvid and am quite impressed by your style of teaching u really teach very good.This lesson was rather mind spinning i heard it thrice but am still confused specially in compound complex sentences.Even i got only 30 out of 100 in its quiz thats quite desperate please make it more clear.Thanks


    Hi Eichi,


    Yes, I will look at each clause type separately in other videos.


      Thank you so much teacher.


Thought I knew everything until this lesson! I had 100 out of 100 on English exam on the college where I’m studying Technical sciences, but this quiz ruined my life, hahaha. Still have a long way to go, and that’s exactly what makes English more interesting, no matter how far you progress, there are many more things to be learned. Thanks, Adam, we expect a new video from you. Regards.


Hi, Adam! Thank you for this lesson. You are right about the dificulties with Sentence types, but now I can easily recognize them;) I scored 9 out of 10 points:-) It’s always pleasant to watch you videos! Thanks again:-)

Natalja Korj

Hello Adam, thanks a lot. My results 7 of 10.


Hi, Adam!! in a video class you said that compound+complex cls. has 2 or more ind. cls. + 1 or more dep. cls., but in a quiz 8 we have 1 ind. cls. + 2 dep. cls. as a compound+complex. How could explain this case? Thankful for your attention!!!


Hi Adam
When I have learnt about Present continuous tense, I heard the teacher said one of its usages was talking about a plan in future. And when I have learnt about “be going to” I saw it have the same usage. So could you tell me the different between them?
Thank you very much!


Hello, Adam!
You’re such as great teacher!
Honestly, I didn’t underestand anything from this lesson.
Whats the best way to learn this rules?

All the best,


Reza Bokneh

Hi Adam. In example of compound sentences you put a comma before “and” and “But” but not before “so”. Can you explain why?


1. This lesson is a nightmare.
2. I got 70/100:
3. You are great!!!
Thanks a lot!

Angela M.

Thank for lesson. I didn´t found big difficult but I think is important practice for a good writing.

It´s a nice idea, is it?


Thank for lesson. I didn´t found big difficult but I think is important practice for a good writing.


Thanks for helping us you are so good teacher and you are all angels :)
I wish we could have check botton or something like for lessons we watched that we could click on it so it would not necassary to think where we were.


hi sir…
if we through something to hurt a person, or to hit anything… then what preposition are the best
as i throw a stone_____him? (on-at-in)…


    At him, to me……

    Barkat Basham

Very good teacher thanks alot


Adam, thank you for this lesson.


Thank you

Metin egrioglu

This lesson is very useful specially for ielts writing task 2, excellent, thanks.


Thanks sir Adam. I have watched a lot of video lessons you created. I am thankful of you, because I got too much from you. Hope, you continue making video lessons and teaching English.

Barkat Basham Baloch

Sorry, our videos are only available on Youtube. Our teachers make money off Youtube ads, which is why we can keep our lessons free. We hope you understand.

engVid Moderator

Thank you sir Adam for a great lesson. You explained it very well and so simple.Though, I struggled a lot in the quiz. The questions were so tricky that caused me to spend a couple of minutes in most. I only got 4, my God!hehehe. But it’s ok! I just need study and practice more to get the grasp of it and hopefully I improve.Godless!


Sir, may I also suggest if you can make a video lessons for each: Conjunctions, Prepositions, Phrases, and Determiners/Modifiers in general(definition,types,few e.g ) because I’m quite confused with them. Thanks a lot sir!


I took the quiz and received a 6 out of 10… ;( Can someone help me through number 4 and 5?
4. Regardless of his intentions, what James did constitutes a crime.
Can someone identify the independent and dependent clause in this sentence?
5. The doctor advised Heather to either increase her intake of essential nutrients with vitamin supplements, or risk the health of her unborn baby.
What makes this a simple sentence?
Thank you in advance!


    4. Regardless of his intentions, what James did constitutes a crime.

    simple sentence:
    S: what James did —noun clause as subject to constitutes.
    o: what—conjunction =object of did verb
    s: James—subject
    vt: did—verb
    Vt : constitutes—main verb
    O: a crime—object of main verb

    5. The doctor advised Heather to either increase her intake of essential nutrients with vitamin supplements, or risk the health of her unborn baby.

    simple sentence:
    S: The doctor
    Vt: advised
    O: Heather
    complement: compound infinitive —to either increase …,or risk the health…
    (taking out ‘to’ from ‘to risk’ for short)

    coordinating conjunction—‘or’
    connecting infinitive 1. to either increase …
    2. ‘to’ risk the health…..


      Hi minionreenie,
      All is my mistake.I am sorry!

      ‘4. Regardless of his intentions, what James did constitutes a crime.’
      should be a complex sentence.

      independent clause
      S: what James did —dependent clause (noun clause) as subject to
      o: what—conjunction =object of did verb
      s: James—subject
      vt: did—verb
      Vt : constitutes—main verb
      O: a crime—object of main verb


Hi Adam;
I have a question in the quiz, for fifth one. It is used “or”, and it is an coordinating conjunction. Even if it is coordinating conjunction, is it needed to use tense verb? Thanks in advance.

Şevval Şayan

Thanks Adam for the great lesson.


you’re welcome dear… and feel free to ask about any thing…


Hello Adam. Thanks for lesson. I have two big problems with these kind of sentence, so can you advice me something which can solve my problems. I will very thankful. First, it is that i always forget about dependent clauses whatever they are adv clauses, adj clauses, noun clauses and that clauses in most cases. Another problem is that i love to make compound-complex sentences, and it is obvious that i do them wrong because i lose the order of sentence in which they should come right. Please help me because i have very little time before i will get the IELTS exam. I will wait your tips as soon as you can write them. Thanks again!


Hi Adam!

Help me please! I didn’t understand the structure of last sentence. I was taught that one sentence couldn’t contain both tenses Past and Future. In one sentence can be only one tense or Present and Future together. Can you explain me this grammar or advise some video lessons about this topic. Thaks a lot!


    really it’s a little bit confusing issue

    Mohamed Sedky

Hi, I got 6 of 10, I love the way you explain, I passed the CANTest at speaking, reading and listening, writing is my problem I will use your videos a lot to study, thanks for sharing.


I got 8 out of 10. Thanks Adam!


Hi Adam!I have one question.In this video you tell about the ,so’ you said it is compound conjungtion not adverbial conjunction.I couldn’t find someting about adverbial and compound conjungtion.On your site ,,Writetotop.com” too.What it’s adverbial and compound conjungtion.Thanks.


Hello, Adam. Thank you for your work because it’s truly the best lesson I’ve ever taken on Engvid.com. Although I only got 6 out of 10, I still enjoyed it very much. Hopefully, in the future, I can distinguish between complex sentences and complex-compound ones better.


you are great , but, I need studied more

patricia toro

thank you ,you are great , but I need study more

patricia toro

Hi Adam,

My score is 9 out of 10 and the only incorrect answer is of this question “Regardless of his intentions, what James did constitutes a crime.”
Is “What James did” a noun clause and the subject of the independent clause? Thanks in advance.


Adamsın sen Adam. Meaning ( You are my marvellous man ) :)


I like this lesson and Quiz, which help me understand many different English sentences styles! Thank you Adam!


a complex lesson

Mohamed Sedky

hi :) im confused. what if the dependent clause is part of a sentence for example: What he did made a problem for his family.
what he did is a dependent clause isn’t it? how about made a problem for his family. this one is not a clause. and what he did is the subject of the sentence


    another example: I met the boy who had helped me. who had helped me is an adjective clause right? but i search to the net that for me to distinguish the difference between the phrase and a clause; a clause has a subject and a verb unlike a phrase which doesnt have a noun but it has a verb and vice versa


Hello,Adam.I want to improve my English in listening.Can you give me some suggestions?


OMG! It’s the most difficult class I’ve ever taken, I’m not even ready for doing the quiz. Perhaps, my English is not that advanced yet.


hi Adam sir,,, how are you…
i want to know that can we call tobe verbs( is am are was were etc…) tobe tense
a tense refferes to the time present, past or future so do these verbs… but the only differnce is that they don’t give any action… but they too refer to the time present past and future…
so please let me know the correct and reasonable idea… about it… thanks


‘But’ isn’t a subordinate conjunction of concession(adverbial clause which is a dependendent clause)?


8. Phil organized the meeting /while Jan took care of the catering, /which turned out to be the most memorable part of the afternoon./

Independent cl.+adv.cl.of time+noun cl.(situation)

Is this correct?


Only 50 ….It was difficult


Thanks very much dear Adam!So intresting!


Hello, Adam! Could you please explain why “Regardless of his intentions, what James did constitutes a crime.”is complex?
And why this one “Even with the weather being that nasty, the couple and their families decided to go ahead with the wedding as planned.” is simple?
what James did – verb, constitutes – verb, a crime – object. Or am I wrong?


    Sorry, problem is solved! :)


Hello from Russia, Adam:) Your lessons really help me so much. i’m gonna try to improve my English with these video. Thanks a lot!


Hello Adam ! I want to learn conversion of simple, compound and complex sentence into each other. May you please help me out for this….. ?

Looking forwrd for your positive reply……

Nishkam Patel

Hi Adam. Can u post a lot more videos on grammar. The problem is that I am a fluent English speaker (in fact that is the only language I can speak clearly since I was 3). However, my grammar is not excellent. Please can u help me out?


BTW,I didn’t understand the second one, Adam. Please can u explain this to me?


You are great as always @dam, thx


you teach very nice adam ,how can i go all your lectures sequentially ??


Got 7 out of 10, perfect explantion for the whole lesson .


difficult but greatt,,but in one mcq, conjunction ”and’ is uesd and aswer was simple . how it is??


Hi this is the first time for me to visit this site
I really enjoyed teacher adem and his way in teaching


Hello, Adam! Thanks for your lesson! Could you please explain why you used “in” in your example “Layla studied biology in university”? I thought there should be used “at university”. Am I wrong? Thank you!

Nastya Khudyakova

    hello adam
    would u explain the number 2.

    mahmudul hassan

hi adam u r really a good teacher


Thank you


hi Adam, i have a doubt, when you spoke about compound and add more two independent clauses, in you example, you didn’t use common before “so”. Why? in that case is not necessary?…thanks


good experience


Hi Adam do you have more exercises about this? you help me a lot, thankss and good page about how to learn english.


Hello Adam,

I love love love your videos. They are detailed, insightful, and thought-provoking. You are a very gifted, passionate, and knowledgeable.

I am a Native English speaker from the United States. I have stumbled on this book, Words on Words: A Dictionary for Writers and Others who Care about Words by the late John Brenner, a couple of years ago at the library of my alma mater: Florida Atlantic University. In a section of his book, he classifies five types of the sentences(the four we know): simple, compound, complex, compound-complex, and complex-complex sentence. That being said, I am happy to say that I now own a copy of the book, Words on Words written by the late John B. Bremner, which was extremely extremely affordable. I love his entry on sentences that I have decided to put the whole entry(including complex-complex sentence) here below and see what you think of it.This topic should be discussed,shared or spread in the grammar and linguistic communities and/or circles because I do believe that the late John Bremner has a very compelling case in introducing a complex-complex sentence. I say this because I have seen evidences of these types of sentences in books. I have always wanted to construct sentences like these. It is good to know that there is a name for such construction. It is safe to say that John Bremner was the only one(so far) to have identified it, described it and put it in his book. Almost all grammarians and linguists are not aware of this sentence construction or type. I can attest to that. Also, it does shed light on the fact that there is so much to learn about the grammar of the English language or any languages for that matter. I love it!!!

From John Bremner’s book:


A sentence is a grammatical unit that conveys a complete thought and contains a subject and a predicate, either or both of which may be understated but understood. Sentences are principally classified as simple, compound, complex, compound-complex, complex-complex. Thus:

-A simple sentence consists of one independent clause: “He knows almost nothing.”

-A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses connected by a coordinating conjunction: “He knows almost nothing and he doesn’t want to study.” and “He knows almost nothing and he doesn’t want to study but he may change.”

-A complex sentence consists of an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses: “He knows almost nothing because he refuses to study.” and “Because he refuses to study, he doesn’t know he should.”

-A compound-complex sentence consists of two or independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses: “He knows that he should study but he doesn’t want to.” and “He knows that he should study but he doesn’t think that he has a chance of passing.”

-A complex-complex sentence consists of an independent clause and a dependent clause that is subordinate to another dependent clause: “He got mad when I told him that he should study.”

Before I had this book in my possession, I attempted to create a complex-complex sentence and here is what I came up with: “Now, the popular kids were pursuing those that once pursued them that they had rejected in the past.”

I ran this sentence by people who are grammar experts like you, Nancy Sullivan, who is the author of Essential Grammar, who said that the second dependent clause of my sentence”that they had rejected in the past” was awkward because she was trying to figure out which clause it was modifying. She created her own version: “Now, the boy was buying cars that needed parts that were difficult to find.”
And Diane Larsen-Freeman, who is one of the co-authors of the book, The Grammar Book. She too constructed her on her own complex-complex sentence: “The thief stole the car that was parked near the stadium where the World Series is being played.
I also saw another example of a complex-complex sentence from another forum: “The man who saw the horse that was grazing in the field was sitting on the fence that enclosed the farm.”

I want to know what you think of this and is it possible for you to create your own complex-complex sentence based on your understanding of it?

Also, What about a complex-complex in the negative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamative?

By the way, speaking of sentences, is sentence “type” associated with structure(simple, compound, complex, etc)? Is sentence “kind” associated with purpose(declarative, interrogative, imperative, exclamative, etc)? Or can both “type” and “kind” be used interchangeably? There is some confusion with the terminology.

Sorry for the barrage of questions! I just love sentences. Also, feel free to share this with other people.

Let me know what you think.

I hope you make a video on this topic or update the one dealing the types of sentences.


    I’m waiting for his reply.


Hi Adam! what an interesting lesson about different types of clauses!
It’s really useful for me to improve my writing skill!
Thank you very very much my dear teacher <3


Wow! 10/10! it has worked very well. Cordial gratitude, Adam.

Ahsan Habib CoU

Hello Adam:

It’s so embarrassing for me but, I can’t get the meaning of clauses, so I can’t understand the lesson… can you splain me… please.

Thanks :)


HI Adam, I’m little confuse about the question no.5, isn’t the or a conjunction? If yes, it wouldn’t be compound sentence?

Jack Wu

Thank you, Adam! 2 correct out of 10, poor score. I am disappointed!


Hi Adam! I want to thank you for all gold information you’re sharing with us, I’m learning a lot. I have seen twice the same lessons to understand the complexity of English grammar which is hard to get in.
Hopefully I’m doing IELTS this year and I’m so grateful with you because this info is not often given to english students or in the best case you need to pay good money to get it.
Blessings and Regards!!


Hi Adam Thank you so much , i have aquestion for you , i will be very happy if you can answer my question . i know that the noun clause function as subject , object , or complement . but when it function as an appositive . thanks in advance

Glorious Ms

Hello, In reference to the following sentence from the test:

Because of the poor weather, and despite the fact that no one really minded getting wet, the concert was postponed and all ticket holders were given vouchers that they could use either to get a refund or to exchange for the rescheduled performance date.

Why isn’t there a comma between: …the concert was postponed, and all ticket holders were given vouchers…

Look forward to your response.


    Hallo Mr Adam, thank you for teaching us.
    Could you help me with the question number 2 and 9 ? I really need it
    as we know question num. 2 we have 1 noun clause, n i think it acts as an object of clause, but tbh I’m not so sure. So, could you confirm this?

    for the question num. 9, I wonder if the “Because of the poor weather, and despite the fact that no one really minded getting wet.” are just phrases?
    Please help me with that.

    thank you sm.

    Leo Alexia

I got all of them correct but why I still unable to make may sentences ??? :(

Layal Mahfoud

Hi Adam, your teaching the sentence type was grate. It was so useful for me. I did the quiz and got 70. Is it a good score? Thanks.


Hi !!!! The quiz was very interesting and I have learnt a lot. Thank you so much for this lesson.
Moreover your teaching style is up to the mark. :)


how can we improve?

Step wise process to meet the ielts grammatical structure, please guide. {is it a complex structure sentence}


I can’t get the quiz why?!!!!


than you Adam , thank you so much.

fatima bb

Hi Adam! Can you please tell me on how I can easily say if what the sentence is? I get very confused sometimes…


Hi Adam, I have a question about, monosyllabic adjective how it is formed and why it cannot be changed like the normal comparative and superlative adjective?


Hi adam this lesson was quite difficult for me can you simplify it more furthermore​ i need to improve my eng speaking skills i get hesitate when it comes to speaking

Fariya hamid

I have a question .. some of the words that you say it does not find her Oxford dictionary … What is your opinion a good dictionary ….
Sorry I do not speak English well

Maha Angel

my godness!!!!What a topic!!! Is it ok if I say that I simple sentence is SUBJECT + VERB + COMPLEMENT ?


Hi sir, can you please make a video on how do I solve the excercises and MCQ if this transformation of the sentences comes in the competitive exams ?


Why my comment has not been approved by your team as yet ? :(


    First-time commenters need their comments manually approved! I’ve just approved it, and your comments should show up right away now.

    engVid Moderator

Hi Adam,
I scored 5/10. It’s not that good but progressing for me as this was my first time.I learnt a lot from your teaching and I very well understand what you teach.thank you for an amazing lesson.


Hi Teacher! Thank You very much for the lesson, but I don’t quite uderstand that type of a sentence:”Regardless of his intentions, what James did constitutes a crime”.Why – constitutes, not – costituted?


    That’s a good question! Both are correct, but have slightly different meanings. “Constituted” could be taken to mean “what James did used to be a crime, but now it is legal”.

    engVid Moderator

Hi, Adam
the lesson was very simple and easy but the quiz was hard and difficult. I hope that you can display more examples.

salma hakim

Very-very-very enjoyable lesson! Thank you very mach, Adam! Brief and sensible in every word. And, of cause, all these questions! There were two of them really hard for undestending. Only after I have read the comments when I get it.


Thank you very much for this lesson.
The quiz was very hard; however, I made 5 corrections.

I’ll be working on this lesson until I feel comfortable. Many thanks,

Jin David

Hi adam
I got 7/10,
I have a question what is difference between present participle and past participle which starts in the beginning i.e
1. Providing the correct information, I went to..
2. Provided the correct information, I went to…


    1. It can be said that:
    I provided somebody with the correct information, than I went…
    2. It can be said that:
    I was provided with the correct information, than I went…




it is difficult


If I took this quiz before watching the lesson, I would get a 4 or a 5 grade, but having watched the video I easily got 9 (the teachers and what they need to undertake and meet, were a little bit tricky).
Adam, your explanations are brilliant.


hey adam just loved the quiz.
could you do more of this kind.


Thanks a lot Adam


Thanks a lot teacher Adem; you taught well. I love your teaching.
I am little confused in usage of comma.
Here are two sentences. And I don’t know in what since the comma was used in the second sentence. Please help me in this the necessity of using comma in that sentence.

1) Ignesious took his television set off its table and put it down on the ground so that it would not fall and break.
2) In the chaos and confusion, two of his children caught hold of their mother’s father and mother’s brother, and rushed in the opposite direction.

Shasthri Krishnamurthy

I did not get the answer for my question

Shasthri Krishnamurthy

You are an excellent teacher; I’m about to take a TOEFL test, my English Gramma is better than before after I watched your video. <3 Thanks a lot, teacher Adem!


I still got confused between the complex sentence and compound complex sentence, but thank you for your wonderful video. It helps me a lot.


Amazing job. Thank you, Adam.


Hi Adam. Thank you very much. I know this comment is irrelevant to this video, but may I ask you to make a video about the most practical collocations we need to know for IELTS in more detail? I’ll appreciate that.


By the way, I got 70 out of 100, which is terrible I guess.


Hello, Adam!
Thank’s a lot for your most natural explanation of, I think, this problematic topic in the English grammar. All things are clear, but the students need to know the grammar terminology like ‘tense verb.’
Best wishes!


Hello Adam
i can’t understand Direct Clause and Indirect Clause
please help me
thank you


Thank. I got 9.


Hi, Adam. Thanks for the the lesson and the quiz. My comprehension is that a subject of an independent clause doesn’t start with a conjunction, is this correct?


Very useful lesson. Thanks. 10/10.I am becoming a pro gradually.

Dr Max

Hi Mr Adam,
Could you please clarify the noun clauses in the 2 question?

Dang Hang

According to cambridge dictionary- In order to is a subordinating conjunction.

We use in order to with an infinitive form of a verb to express the purpose of something. It introduces a subordinate clause. It is more common in writing than in speaking:

[main clause]
Mrs Weaver had to work full-time

[subordinate clause]
in order to earn a living for herself and her family of five children
But why is IN ORDER TO a conjunction?
We can simply say–
Mrs Weaver had to work full time to earn a living for herself and her family of five children.Does ‘in order to’join here?


Hello! Adam, I got a mistake at NO.8 question. Well,the answer is compound-compelex, but the sentence has 1 independent clause, 2 dependent clauses ,it should be a complex sentence,righ?


Thank you for your time and consideration and I look forward to hearing from you soon


Adam, I think there are two independent clauses here: The doctor advised Heather to either increase her intake of essential nutrients with vitamin supplements, or risk the health of her unborn baby.

1. The doctor advise Heather…
2. or risk the health…
there are two independents alternatives


ya ya ya I got 10 out of 10 ..


Thank Adam !

This video is really helpful for me more understanding about the complex and compound sentences which is in order to get band 7 in IELTS.

It is help for my both writing and speaking as well.

I scored 8 out of 10 in the quiz ! I feel surprise and get incentive to learn English in order to improve my language skills instead of exam skills.


hey Adam
“Regardless of his intentions, what James did constitutes a crime”
how is this a complex sentence?
where is the subject of the dependent clause?


    don’t worry, I figured it out


thank you very much Adam for advices to other listeners they are helpful for everyone


Hey Adam….I m xyz@ from india…as u know here in india ,it’s very difficult to speak English but I have taken an initiative to speak it fluently…can u help me with that…..
Besides I couldn’t understand sentence on basis of structure.so I would request to help me…
Actually I am so confused about compound and complex sentences…they appear to be almost same…..is it on the basis of conjunction(coordinate ,subordinate)that we decide whether the sentence is compound or complex..


sir i have a question . in quiz i selected following sentence as simple but the correct answer was complex:

“Regardless of his intentions, what James did constitutes a crime.”

This is my understanding so far.
S – what James did
V – constitutes
O – a crime

can you little bit explain why is it complex type ?


Adam you are great teacher


Thank you, ADAM TEACHER.

Mubo farah

Adam, please, tell me why in the third sentence of the quiz the right answer is simple sentence. I think “in order to” means “why” and therefore this sentence is complex type.


Hi Adam. Thanks for your great videos. can you explain number 10 in quiz? I don’t understand it!


Hi Adam, although I watched your lesson twiced, I couldn’t answer quizz well. I got 4 out of 10. ?


I was not able to distinguish sentences structures when I was a student, but I get better after this lesson even though I didn’t get full marks.



Hello Adam,
Thank you so much for such a wonderful explanation!
But why is ”Regardless of his intentions” is considered as a dependent clause and not a phrase, even though there is no subject and verb there ?


Hi Adam sir.
hope you fine and doing will so sir i have a lot of problem with the grammar from where i start at began er gave me idea thanks?


You a great teacher, and this particular lesson is a textbook lesson. thank You!


Hi Adam.. you are a great teacher.This is my first time with this site but I got 4 out of 10 and I don’t have any idea how to improve …..Tell me what shold I do to improve


Hi Adam, “Even with the weather being nasty, the Family decided to go ahead with the wedding as planned”. Why is it be the simple sentence. Is “Even with the weather being nasty” the subject and verb with dependent clause which is why it is complex sentence? Please clarify this!


I need to learn more about clauses


Hii Adam,I have got only 5 out of 10 only. How can I improve it???


It is the most hardest quiz,I had ever taken at Engvid,still got 80%.My teacher told us a simple way to identify compound sentences by “BOY FANS”Rule which means–b for but,o for or,y for yet,for for”for”,a for and,n for neither ans s for so.Others are same as you told.Stupendous effort.Love from pakistan to you and all engvid team.Regards

Muhammad Usman Haider

Hi, Adam, thank you for the lesson:) I still have one question:
Does it mean that “Weather you agree with me or not makes little difference to our investors. ” (I mean this particular shortened version ) is a complex sentence, because of the noun phrase serving as subject? Do verb phrases make sentences complex automatically?


Hi Adam, nice video, but I still don’t get the part that you said at the end of the video, what is compound complex conjunction?


Hi Adam,
It is little bit hard to me. I will try to re-watch the lecture to distinguish which is simple, compound, or complex sentence.
Thank you very much./.



Hi Adam, Thanks for your effects, I’m From Jordan and I study Literature, In Syntax Lessons, I always misunderstand the functions of the dependent clause.
I don’t know up until now how to recognize the functions.
I will give you an example,
That John passed the exam, pleased me.
this sentence functions as what ??
I hope that you understood my question
thank a lot

rose najjar

I am not sure that “my assistant came 10 min. later” is an independent clause? Later than what? Could you please justify?


100% but still confusing, thanks Adam.


Thanks sir,i secured 6 of 10,can you plz split and elaborate the sentence#2 and 10.

Hassan raza

I still get confused.


Thank Adam. Your grammar lesson are so very marvellous, precious. I am learning a lots on how writing very well. Grazie!<3.


Hi adam have a good day, these lesson it is so difficult for me but i need to know how to recognize every sentence and how to understand them because it has so important


Hi adam have a good day, thank you very much these lesson.


Thank you Adam
I got 100%
Thanks.I understand you very well.?


Hai adam, thank you for your materi its so simple to understand for me. And im from Indonesia.


Dear Tutor, I have questions.

Whether you agree with me or not makes little difference to our investors, who,by the way,are the ones most affected by whatever mistakes we make

Whether you agree with me or not subject and understood

is this possible I put that in front of “makes” such as makes that little difference to our investors?Also, will ” little difference to our investors” be considered the object of “makes”?


Hi Adam and thanks for your great video (as always). As you said, for type three sentences, we need to have 1 ind cl. + 2 or more ind cls. In the following example given in the video, which one is the independent one? I’m doubtful because IMO ind cl. all have incomplete meanings. Here is your sentence:

“Whether you agree with me or not makes little difference to our investors, who, by the way, are the ones most affected by whatever mistakes we make.”

I think “you agree with me” is the answer. If I’m right, isn’t it incomplete? A bit confused about that…

Thanks in advance


Hi Adam! Your lessons are great! While, I’m in a trouble understanding question3 in this quiz. The answers says that the sentence is a complex sentence, but I can’t figure out where are the dependent clauses. It seems to me that there are only some complements.


    Me too


Hi Adam! Thanks for your lessons.it always inpires and motivates me to learn more information for understanding English,but from time to time I come across a small problem. When I’m going express my thoughts or feelings I often make grammatical errors in difficult sentences. What would you recommend me to improve my skill?


The country’s economy is growing but so too is inequality.
Adam can u help to transform it to complex. The ‘but so’ is confusing me.


Hello teacher Adam I had really confuse and scared of that lesson I still try to understand but really I get stuck , thank you for all the work you have been done.


Hi Adam,

Could you please check if I´m thinking correctly.

once upon a time = adverbial phrase when?

in a land far, far away = adverbial phrase where?

a little girl = subject

wished = verb

for her wicked stepmother to be eaten = object of the verb

by (what?) the evil dwarves = object

(who were) inhabiting the nearby forest = adjective clause

It´s complex sentence because there is one independent clause and a dependente clause (adjective clause)

am I correct?

Thanks for your time,

Cristina Venancio

Hi Adam,

How´s it going?
Well, I´m back again.
Could you please check if my train of thoughts are OK?

many scientists believe = independent clause
(believe = intransitive verb when sb has a firm conviction or belief)

and = links one independent clause + a dependent clause

many politicians = subject

agree = verb

their assessment – object of the verb

that climate change will have a major effect on the economy. = dependent clause – adjective clause (giving more information about ´assessment´)

we have one independent clause + dependent clause so it´s a complex sentence.

Cristina Venancio

I would like to know if my sentence is correct or not.

John went to work by car because he lives far away, but he also gave a ride to my friend, who don’t have a car.

Ewerton Resende

40 / 100 :-/


i got 3 10


Hello, Adam. Please, help. I cannot find the rule that “attendance” and “dropping off” are combined in the next sentence.
“Even before this, I’d worried about our church attendance dropping off.”
I guess that “attendance dropping off” is a Dependent object Clauses. But I don’t understand how gerund is used without the verb “be”.Please write what kind of video to watch if possible.

Airat Iumagulov

    Perhaps it is an identifying adjective clause.
    “Even before this, I’d worried about our church attendance(that is\which is)dropping off.” Is it correct?

    Airat Iumagulov

      But maybe that is an adjective phase.

      Airat Iumagulov

        If that is an adjective phrase, then what is this?
        “I don’t care about her being Japanese”
        Is it the same thing that “I don’t care that she is Japanese”?

        Airat Iumagulov

Hi Adam. It was awesome. Thanks for all the effort and energy you put here for explaining grammar clearly and with good examples.


I have got 50% marks only :( I need more questions to practice about this topic. Can u plz help me!


She eats and watches TV . Is this sentence simple or compound ? And why ?


Hi Adam, Your teaching style significantly helping me to improve my communication skills in Egnlish. Could you please let me know if you are conducting any regular online classes?

Harsha M

Apologies for using the wrong spelling for English.

Harsha M

9/10! Thanks, Adam! This lesson is more helpful for me to read the English news.

Jerry Gu

i got 5/10 haha, okay i will learn again


It’s a hard test, but I got 7/10 and it’s pretty hard, tho. I can believe myself that I got that kind of score and maybe i should take more english test. Thanks Mr. Adam for helping us learn english.


H Adam ,
Could you clarify a little more the following sentence in terms of its constituents -independent or dependent clause –
Whether you agree with u or not makes little difference to our investors ,who , by the way ,are the most affected by whatever mistakes we make .
Thank you in advance dear Teacher .

JIhade Amezian

Hi Adam,
I have a really hard time understanding the 3rd Q. Why is it a simple sentence? I thought it was a complex… I mean I can easily distinguish the independent sentence here, but isn’t this part supposed to be at least a dependent clause of some kind?
-> “…of school hours in order to enhance their skills and methodologies and to meet the demands of a new generation of students.”

Jessie Ash

Hello sir,
thanks for your efforts on helping people around the world.
good luck.


Hi Adam, thanks for you time to help us, this lesson was a bit trick,I didnt understand.


wow! It was fairly easy to do. In Ukraine we have the same.


Hello, Adam.

#1 Once upon a time, in a land far, far away, a little girl wished upon a star for her wicked step-mother to be eaten by the evil dwarves inhabiting the nearby forest.

I understand that “a little girl wished upon a star” is an independent clause. Can you explain to me why “to be eaten and inhabiting” are not tensed verbs?

#5 The doctor advised Heather to either increase her intake of essential nutrients with vitamin supplements, or risk the health of her unborn baby.

The doctor advised Heather is an independent clause.
Does that mean correlative conjunction joins 2 dependent clauses?

#7 The new recruits were somewhat shocked by the sergeant’s meanness, and some even complained to the commanding officer, but nothing changed as a result of these complaints.

Can you please explain the 3 independent clauses?

#8 Phil organized the meeting while Jan took care of the catering, which turned out to be the most memorable part of the afternoon.

Phil organized the meeting is an independent clause.

why is “while Jan took care of the catering” is a dependent clause? is it because there is no comma before while?

why is “which turned out to be the most memorable part of the afternoon.” a dependent clause?


10/10, thanks :)


sir i face big problem when i see a big sentence. despite knowing all the words meaning in a big sentence but i dont understand the proper meaning of the sentence. what can i do for that. please recommend me. i am taking ielts preparation. and i have to get at least 7.5


Number 3 is a complex sentence, not a simple sentence.

“Teachers need to take supplementary training in order to enhance their skills.”

This contains one independent clause (teachers need to take supplementary training) and one dependent clause (in order to enhance their skills).



Hello Adam, Please can you teach on figure of speech


Thanks a lot, Adam! It was interesting, helpful and pretty complicated at the same time! Powerful combination!)))


Sometimes I see some connectors such as because, as are used in both compound sentences and complex sentences. Can you explain it?

I am hungry because I haven’t had lunch. (Is this a complex sentence?)

Nan Lan Lan

    Yes it is a complex sentence. ‘Because’ is a subordinating conjunction and hence makes ‘because I haven’t had lunch’ a dependent clause. The independent clause is ‘I am hungry’. Since a complex sentence is a independent clause joined to a dependent clause by a subordinating conjunction, your sentence is a complex sentence.
    Hope it helps!


Sarah is going to Boston because she has to meet her parents and go for a meeting- Complex

Sarah is going to Boston because she has to meet her parents and she has to go for a meeting- Compound complex

Am I correct?


Hi Adam,
Thank you for your great work.
I have some questions about some of this quiz’s sentences.
In sentence #1 isn’t “to be eaten” a passive tense verb?
In #4 what is the second tense verb?
in #5 isn’t “risk the health” a second tense verb?
In #8 which noun does the adj clause describe?

Thank you


Hi Adam please what type of sentence is “you should either follow her, or walk home.


Hello sir,
I am totaly skocked of my score which is just 50. Please, whate is the basic grammatical lesson that l need to master these four types?


Sir, may i ask? which are the 2 independent clause and 2 dependent clause in the sentence of the #10 question?


Hi Professor Adam, I have a question
In the fourth exercise:
Regardless of his intentions, what James did constitutes a crime.
what James did constitutes a crime = noun clause
Regardless of his intentions = is not an independent clause, because there has to be a subject, a verb and an object
Am I right or not?
I hope you can help me, please.

Andres Rafael T.

please kindly explain question 2 of this quiz. how this is complex sentence???

Hina Shaheen

Thank you Teacher Adam. I got 8/10.

Amira Abdulaziz

Hi Adam! first of all thank you for this detailed video. It helped me in understanding the types of sentences better than before. I have a question that are the sentences with “either or” and “neither nor” type of simple sentence?


I got 4/10


Hi Adam! Thanks a lot. But I still can’t get it. I got 50/50. Of course, I just guessed all of them. Have no idea what the noun/adv/adj clause is.


Thank you.pro-Adam


Hi professor Adam, I absolutely find your lessons helpful but some sentences can be tricky! Can you please tell me what kind of sentence is this one: “ Defined by its concrete floor, between minimalism and color interventions, this apartment in Annemasse aims to be a comfortable and spacious interior reflecting the owner’s spirit in a ‘Less is more’ philosophy” and which ones are the subordinate clauses Also whoever in this comment section that thinks that can help please do. Every info will help! Thank you


Regardless of his intentions, what James did constitutes a crime.
Could you explain the detail why is complex
I know where the noun clasue is

But where is the independent clause is what James did constitutes a crime ??

Time changed

Hi Adam
Thank you so much for all your fantastic lessons, I’m really happy to watch all your lessons, but it is a little bit hard, could you please give more examples

Benafsha Paywandi

Adam! I have a question regarding complex sentence in your video.

Whether you agree with me or not is a noun clause but is it independent in itself ? I know it works like a subject in the sentence or independent clause but want a clear idea about it?
Would you mind shedding some light on it.

Regards : ADnan Umar

Adnan Umar

How do we differentiate compound and complex from compound complex sentence?


Thank you sir. But I need to repeat the lesson because I only got 5 of 10.

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