engVid quiz

Test your understanding of this English lesson

Test your understanding of the English lesson by answering these questions. You will get the answers and your score at the end of the quiz.



First to comment :) and got 7/9 :(


    I do enjoy your grammar-oriented videos Adam, but I had had to watch some of them more than twice, I must confess.This one was not the exception to the rule, by the way.

    Writing academic reports demands the use of formal language and more complex grammar patterns. This lesson provides a useful tool to do so.

    Very useful lesson indeed.


      Gee! Making mistakes as usual. I had no time to proofreed my comment:

      ” . . . but I have had to watch some of them . . . ”

      Does it sound much better now to you Adam?
      Thanks in advance for your feedback.


        Hi Regino,

        I see you’re a perfectionist :). Have had is correct given that this one is not an exception. Otherwise, had had would have worked but implied that this one was easier ;)


    The same as you.

    Gerald Chan

Thanks, Adam. Very informative and clearly explained. Great lesson, as always.


Thanks, Adam. Lesson very interesting.


Hi Adam. Nice lesson. Please also make a video on punctuation marks. Thank you!

Akbar Safi

    Hi Akbar,

    I will, but in the meantime, there are a few lessons already on these. Look for the search box on this site and type in ‘punctuation’ and you will see the available videos.


      Thank you so much Sir for your reply. Ok, I’ll search it.

      Akbar Safi

Hi Sir. Very informative lesson you’ve discussed. Please also make a video on ‘Punctuation Marks’. Thank you.

Akbar Safi

Thanks. It’s 89.


Thank you very much!All these clauses are very tricky, but practice makes perfect!I’ll try to understand)

Mysterious Student

Thanks for the lesson, I have appreciated.


Thanks for the lesson.


Thanks Adam for explanation. Great lesson. I like it,


    Great! It is very useful for my students! Thanks,Adam!

    Valentine Kardash

Dear Adam,
you are always phenomenal, incredible, and out of this world
I can NOT forget your favor forever.
Because of your magnificent coaching, I think I can now write and publish international scientific papers.
god bless and protect you.


At last I understand the difference between adverb participle and adjective participle, and now I see that the same sentence can be understood in two other ways. And what you said about adding “while” in the beggining of a sentence, it’s something new for me, but I thing it really can help to speak in clear way, especially for beginners. Good work Adam!Your grammar lessons are the best on engvid. As always, thank you.


    Thank you Hubert.

    Just keep in mind that when speaking you can bend the rules more than when writing, so there is less pressure to use these perfectly and sometimes people might confuse you.


Thank You Adam


Thank you Adam!


Hello dear Adam,really I need that lesson.Thank you)In additionally,I have asked this question in facebook page,however,nobody has answered my question yet(I want to ask you.I have proficiency exam as IELTS,however,this exam is more academic and much more difficult.Can you recommend any stratigies or tricks for passing that exam?Thanks in advance)

Nubar Abdullayeva

    Hi Nubar,

    If you look for the search box on this site and type in ‘IELTS’ you will find many videos to help you prepare for this test. You can also visit my site, writetotop.com for more tips.


Thanks, very helpful


Thanks Adam, what a well-explained lesson about such a difficult topic like this!!


Excellent teacher.

Ana Claudia 1967

HI, very helpful lesson, thank you. If you want to improve your english i will be enjoy if you write to me on skype :) my nick: daniel_033


Adding the past participle to my vocabulary in order to get a highest score it’s challenging but necessary. Thanks Adam!


Ive got 9/9. Thanks Adam!




Thanks, Adam.

Júlio César L Sousa



thanks Adam, I get 9/9, I learn English everyday from your video. :)


Very useful lesson Adam, thanks!


Thanks Adam!! You are a great teacher :)


Thanks, Adam


I have realised that the questionary hasn’t been so difficult to understand that the video class explanation. I have had to listen to it twice to make sure that I had understood all the concepts but I think that I will go back to listen to it again, more than twice although it hasn’t been very complicated to understand the meaning, but to use the strict grammatical rules when participle sentences are used. Thanks a lot, teacher Adam, we have learned and enjoyed another lesson which enriches our knowledge and the good sense of the English language, very useful as always.


Thank you Adam,I’m new here and i really like your videos.I love the way you teach us, you are a amazing teacher around the world.

shumail saleem

    Welcome Shumail :)


Thanks Adam. It`s very useful lesson.


Hi Adam, thanks for your work. I got 6 correct of 9. In the second quiz, I noticed you added a complement explanation, which is an adjective clause. But what if I understand it like this: After Cal was dressed in his finest clothes, he went to the party with high confidence. Am I right this way? I still got a sentence, please correct me if I am wrong. “How did I manage to get up at 8:30 while sleeping at 4?” Thanks again!


    HI Wdlll,

    You need to be careful with this change:
    After Cal was dressed in his finest clothes, he went to the party with high confidence.

    Grammatically, it is correct. However, the meaning changes. Firstly, you’ve introduced a time sequence (after). Secondly, saying ‘he was dressed in” means that someone else put clothes on him (passive verb). To keep it active, you would say “After he dressed in his…” and to make this a participle you would say “after dressing in …” or having dressed in …”.

    Sorry if this is confusing.

    As for the other sentence:
    How did I manage to get up at 8:30 after going to sleep at 4? or
    How did I manage to get up at 8:30 having gone to sleep at 4?

    Does this help?


Thank you Adam :) I have one question using a conjuntion with an adverb clause. Can I use another conjunction besides WHILE, such as because, although, if, follwed by a participle-ing or ed?

Because loving super high speed, I got an accident by a super car.


    Hi Smet,

    No, in the case of because or although, the relationship must be very clear and the conjunction removed (reduced). If the relationship is not clear, then you would have the conjunction, which would then require the full clause.


Hi Adam,
thank you for this lesson it was really helpful.I feel that finally, I catch up with Participles coz the last one when you mention them I was lost.


Hi Adam,
I appreciate your challenging lessons. For this quiz I scored 8/9. Hope to see any new helpful lessons.
Kind regards

kuba aka

Hi Adam! Thank you so much:)
I prefer to study English in your class rather than take class in Japan.


    Maybe I can understand Seiya :) I used to teach English in Japan.


why i can not see the vedio? who can tell me the way to solve the problem. thank you.


    Hi! It looks like you’re posting from China. Your government may be blocking YouTube, where all our videos are hosted. You’ll have to use a VPN or some other way.

    engVid Moderator

      Hello Adam,

      I have 2 questions:

      Dressed in his finest clothes, Cal went to the party. Can I use “Dressing”?

      Realizing that the police were on to him… Can I use “reslized”?

      What are the rules of using “ed” / “ing” participles?

      Thanks and Happy New Year!!!


hi there, Adam do you mind people writing you but on that domain? if you don’t, why don’t you send your email address. there is sth i’d like to share with you. arek, here’s mine: fulatatpost.pl


    Hi Infulat,

    You can email me at info @ writetotop.com


Hi Adam,

Thanks for the lesson! I was wondering if you could say more about contexts of use for these sentences. In other words, could you give us the key to know when we can use the adverbial or relative clause at the beginning of the sentence and when we have to leave those reduced clauses just next to the modified noun?



    Hi Cristianrj,

    Firstly, you never have to use them. They just make the writing more interesting and add variety. The key is to make sure the subject of the clause (even if reduced) is the same as the subject of the independent clause.

    Feeling angry, the boss yelled at everyone. — the boss was feeling angry and he (the boss) yelled.

    As for adjectives that modify nouns, these are reduced clauses that reduce to just one word, and then this word acts as a regular adjective.

    Not sure if this actually answers your question, though.


      Hi Adam!
      didn’t get, why should I use “before” in the last question?


HI Adam thank you for all your lessons you are the best teacher for me thanks a lot.


thank you Adam. your video is great as usual.
could you please make a video about the phrasel verbs of the verb “wear”
wear on
wear away
wear out
wear off
wear down
and so on.

Omar Minoo

    Will do, Omar ;)


9 out of 9 answered correctly! Great lesson. “Accused for his acts of corruption by millions of citizens, the president resigned, but the entire nation still claimed justice.”


    Good sentence Jose ;)


I just get 6/9. I am still confused in this lesson. It is difficult to get it.


    You may have to watch it again Lethitran. You can also ask questions here.


Hi! Adam
please! make a video where the indefinite and definite article may be or may not be used like in the following sentences.
1. Cut the cake with knife.
2. Cut the cake with a knife.
3. cut the cake with the knife. ( referring to the whole knife in general )

Arjit Singh

    I’ll get on that, Arjit.


Great lesson.Great exercise. Thanks again, Adam


I got a 10/10 eventhough it was a very hard question for me.


    oops 9/9


thank you.


I follow ENGVID for about 4 years and have learnt a lot from you specifically.
Many foreign students are living and studying in English-language universities and they commonly have difficulties in “paraphrasing techniques”. How to read and understand a paragraph and then change it into my own words, is may main issue.I know it is an extensive subject, I will be very grateful,if you make a video about this subject, please.


Dear Sir

I want to know the difference in present participle and past participle in a sentence started with present and past i.e
1.Providing the information, I went to office….(I provided… or I who was provided)
2.Provided the information, I went to office (I who was provided the …)
pls tell the difference


    Hi errajeev2005,

    Firstly, it is not past and present, but passive and active.

    As for the examples, the first doesn’t seem to make sense as is. If you write, ” Providing him with the information…” then it is is more clear.

    The second– Provided with the information, I went… — means that someone gave me the information I needed.

    Does this help?


    Adam about the word “either”(sometimes I can hear you pronounce it /ˈiː.ðɚ/ and sometimes /ˈaɪ.ðɚ/. Is there any rule or it is going on just spontaneously?
    Thank you.


      Good question Katrin,

      Actually, there is no rule. You will hear native speakers use both. I don’t really think about it when I say it, though I think I tend to use ay more than ee.


        Thank you!


    Well, these are not used ONLY in present perfect, but when related to the present, they don’t need a time expression. For example, single-celled organisms evolved into more complex creatures millions of years ago. (simple past).

    regardless, I will make a list of more of these types of verbs ;)


      Yea,I just put the question in a wrong way, sorry. Thanks.


    At school they teach to put ALREADY only between HAVE/HAS and VERB. And put YET only at the end.


      Yes, they teach many things in oversimplified ways that later confuse people. It’s unfortunate.




Hi Adam,
I am very glad to take the lessons from you. I am very thankful to you for these beautiful lessons.
Adam, could you please help me understand if the following sentence is correct.
‘I am your English teacher’.
I have had many discussions on which one is correct- ‘I am your teacher of English’ and ‘I am your English teacher.’
Please help me understand which one is correct?

Yashwant Kumawat

    Hi Yashwant,

    They are both correct. I am your English teacher means that this person is leading this subject. I am your teacher of English might imply that this person is teaching you the language.In most cases, the first will used for both situations.

    Does this help?


      Thanks a lot Adam.
      Love you so much and your teaching as well.

      Yashwant Kumawat

        You are my favourite teacher. Thanks.

        Yashwant Kumawat

      Thanks a lot Adam. You are my favourite always.
      Love you so much and your teaching as well.

      Yashwant Kumawat

Adam one question more. In American English I sometimes can hear using ON instead of IN(AT).
For example: “How many players ON the team?”,
“Good luck ON school!” etc. Could you do a less-
on about the differences of using them by British and Americans or give me some more information
about it? Thanks.


    Hmmm. on the team is correct (though in a group or band, but on the committee).

    On school I’ve never heard. With, at, yes, but never on.

    I will see if this lesson hasn’t already been done and get back to you.


      (Good luck ON school!) I’ve read it under one of American teenagers video.(without doubt this guy is about 12 and speaks American very good on his video).
      I’ve heard British people say “How many players in your teem?” a few times.(And somewhere in the textbook too)


        Also I’ve heard about the next difference (on the street(American)/in the street(British).
        What about that?


          Yes, British and America English do have these differences (in on the street), and in the team (I would use this to refer to members of a team in business or school, but in sports, they are on a team).

          English can be strange :)


          Thank you Adam.(I really thought IN THE TEAM(about sport)). It is not clear pronounced in movies.(and there’re not many of them about sport)


HI MR. ADAM you very good coaching i have your channel
i would like to tech the people grammar how i can native speaker. please send your advice to me
thank you


    Hi Emad,

    You should get a good grammar book and follow the units in there. You can also watch videos here and other places and learn the ways to teach.

    Is this what you had in mind?


I got 8/9. I did wrong on 8th question. I should I think focus on the most confusing part of the lesson :)


It’s my second time and I got 3 out of 9?

Mr Hamidi

    I mean second time in this website

    Mr Hamidi

      Welcome Mr. Hamidi.

      It will get easier as you get used to it. ;)


Very good lesson Adam! Thank you.


but thanks for this vid but next time make a vid about where to put commas


    I’ll see what I can do Francis ;)


Thanks for the lesson.


good lesson and better score!


Any one who talk with me please?

Ali Hyder kumbhar

Thank you for nice lesson.what is the difference between participles and adjustive phrase or adverb phrase.


    Hi Umerismail,

    A participle is a type of phrase that contains a participle (active or passive) and can be an adjective or an adverb. An adjective phrase describes a noun and an adverb phrase completes a verb.

    I will try to make lessons on these.


Having attended a tormenting Deutsch class for beginners, I took a break, took the quiz above, and got nine out of nine right away.


Good lesson Adam, but I must to confess that at the beginning could be a litte bite confusing.


I got 7 of 9 it was lil´bit tricky lol amazing video though thanks Adam.


Very nice class……


Hi! Quick question, can we use this rule or method when speaking? Thank you


Thank you so much!


“that brought and brought” are confusing.

thank you for this lesson sir Adam.
you’re one of my favorite teacher.


Thanks for your lesson.


Woah, i didn’t expect to get 100. It’s confusing


Thank you very much for your reply.


Hmmm you didn’t answer to me


hlo Adam i have sean your all videos and they are very helpful. i want to submit my task 1 and task 2 to you. so,i can known my problems and my level. so,can u help me? and where i can sumbit you?

K Gill

I like the class. Thank you Adam!
I got 8.9 of 9


I had to watch the video couple of time to understand. English grammar is very confusing to me. A very useful lesson indeed. Thank you, Adam!


Hi Adam , I like your videos ,I try to get The test for teaching licence in IL but I couldn’t pass it three times . I have problem with writing essay .
Thank you

israa hraishawi

I can’t believe, I got 9 out of 9 … so many thanks Adam, you deserve it :D!

Lucas Avelino

Thank you Adam, That was very good lesson.


i got 8 correct out of 9 , meaning 89 is my score

midoo jh

i got 8 correct out of 9 , meaning 89 is my score
quiz helping me to have more understanding

midoo jh

how could i know when using a verb with ind or the past participle of the verb , as a participle clause


Hi, I have a question which confuses me. Question is that If I can change this sentence from “The boy that went to Canada is getting used to his new life.” to ” The boy gone to Canada is getting used to his new life.”

As I wrote that I am confused about this because I am not sure whether I have to use -ed phrase for “be v3” or “v1”

In fact, Does “The boy gone to Canada is getting used to his new life” always mean “The boy who is gone to Canada is getting used to his new life” ? or can we say “The boy who went to Canada is getting used to his new life.” ?

Thank you…


sir, I want to develop my English written expression and my vocabulary. can you please help me how I can enhance my English writing in correct easily

Rahat Fatima

Arigato gosai mase Adam Sensei! You teach very well! Arigato!


Hi Adam! I just watched this useful video that i really needed to learn about. But I must watch this again until i completely understand it. Anyway, thank you for making such this video.


Thank you so much!
This video is so hard for me but it’s very useful. I’ll promise I try to be a good learner.

Young Kyung Lee

The man really cry is me. T.T
I really thank you for it!
It could be help to me!
Thank you.


Hey Adam! I really like how you teach us grammar so deeply. Good job!

Eduardo França

8/9 .A good one. Thanks Adam


Got 07/09 . Interesting lesson . I enjoyed a lot . Thanks ☺


my first time I saw this grammar, You got 7 correct out of 9.

I am happy with this result.


An important lesson, specially to be able to read a book in english language. Thanks Adam!

Isaias Menezes Silva

finally I got all correct


Thanks, Adam!!!! I got 89!

Rodrigo Ribeiro

First try and got 8/9. Nice feeling :D :D I appreciate your help with all these grammars.


Thank you so much Sir. Adam.


Hellon Adam from Toronto.
Your photo does not reflect you correctly.I think that you are a person like silk.
Your lecture is excellent.


Great lesson. Thanl you. ;)


Hello, Adam. First, thanks a lot for the very clear explanation of particles in English. I have the one comment and the one question.
1. In the quiz, we have the question:
“Dressed in his finest clothes, Cal went to the party with high confidence.
What type of participle is ‘dressed’?”
The possible answers are the following:
“present participle adjective
past participle adjective
past participle adverb
present participle adjective.”
I believe the fourth choice being the same as the first is just a typo. Am I right? Or, it is put here intentionally, isn’t it?
2. Here is my question. In scientific papers, I often meet the phrase ‘the data obtained’. For instance, ‘The data obtained show that this value is increased.’
What is the difference between ‘the data obtained’ and ‘the obtained data’?


thanks adam


Thanks sir
difficult lesson for me


Thanks teacher! It has been a pleasure to watch your video. Now participles are more clear for me.


Thanks for the useful lesson. Does this website provide online essay feedback for IELTS applicants?


Thank you so much adam sir. i got 8 out of 9. Sir please make a video on noun phrase, adjective phrase and adverb phrase


thanks Adam that was truly amazing, i honestly believe these tutorials lessons helped many students including me.

basel mac

Always giving us very useful classes, Adam makes English grammar easier. I can’t thank you enough.

Adriano Martins Péres

Thank you I enjoy when I watch your videos I appreciate


9 out of 9) You’re amazing and a lot of help. Thanks so much!

Emma Jane

I got 7.


Pleas Adam can you make playlist videos about grammar only and explain it all because you are my favorite teacher in engvaid and I understand your lessons easily

Ahmed Rado

Adam! I am starting to see what an adverbial clause and what an adjective clause does when there is an independent clause attached. I still have a lot to learn.


I got 8 of 9
Thank you for your lesson.

Aung Aung Aung

More advanced and complex videos on the Subject of Writing Skills,please. Your way of delivering lessons are amazing since you know how to make them easier when they are especially complex and hard to understand. Looking forward to watching your videos on the same and/or similar subjects. Therefore; I am kindly requesting you to upload more. Thank you.


Nice test!Adam is a good teacher))


Shamevon me ADAM!!i have only 0 points (((


Good informative lesson. Thank You

I got 8 :)


Thank you Adam


Hi! Thank you for lesson. But it’s not clear the difference between participles and gerunds. May be do you have deeper explanation?))) thank you


Very good lesson.Thank you,very much.


Hi Adam, can you explain problem 3. I thought “left” is the past tense, so the action “feel” should happen in the past as well. So I chose “felt”.
Thank you very much.


Thanks for your lesson! But my question is in “3. Kelly left the interview feeling confident about her chances.” there should be a noun before the “feeling” if it is a adjective participle. if it is a adverb participle there should be”because” before “feeling”.


    Same question here. Kelly left the interview feeling confident about her chances. Should there be an adverb participle like while or when before feeling?


After watching all the grammar related videos, I finally could get a perfect score in the tests.

Thank you Adam!


Hello Adam,
Thank you for your training footage.
I need your description about one of your the exam question:
“Being unsure of what to do next, Paul decided to wait for his boss to give him instructions.”
Could you please write the complete form of this sentence? is it correct complete form of the question? “after being unsure of what to do next, ….” ?
I look forward to hearing from you.


Adam I need you to check my essays, please tell where I can subscribe to receive a direct feedback from you.


Thank you Adam. I will have to practice again to get the perfect mark


I´ve got 7/9, but I am not sure why I got 2 wrong. Adam, how can I contact you?


Thanks for the lecture Adam! Big fan here

Emanuel Mtz

Excellent lesson.Thank you very much.


Dear Sir, Adam,

Please, accept my heartiest gratitude for your unique and outstanding lectures, based on various aspects of English language teaching and learning methodology.

I think, you don’t know how many ESL, ELT students and teachers are being benefited by your lectures. It’s truly unbelievable.
I’m trying my best to enrich myself from your lectures which are uploaded in “EngVid” and “Write to the top” websites.

Thank you for your endless help for non native learners.

At last, please accept my apology for my poor writing skills.
I’m trying my best to get the speaking fluency and writing accuracy.

Thank you very very much, Sir!

Maksud Arefin

Superb lecture :)
As always I would say :)
I scored 100 %.
Thank you
You rock ! Adam




8 correct out of 9:)


I am very confused about the use of had and had been. Kindly help me solve this problem. As these days I am working on my project so need to write in a professional way.And I am totally feeling helpless.:(


Oh! I’m euphoric! I got 8 correct out of 9! \o/ Thanks for the class teacher!!!

Poliana Almeida

Hi!First of all thank you! I have a question about this lesson. is this right sentences? 1. Taught to mumbling is indecent manner,Jimmy would’ve never been penalized.(If he had taught). And should we always use that form in text?


Please make a video on gerund and infinitive.i need it very much.

pradeep bhaskar

9/9 ? thank you Adam.


In third question, would be possible to use felt. If not , could you please explain it.

monaim knight

adam.. I want to talk to you to improve my grammar please


Many thanks, Adam for the great lesson. I have a question: When we need to change the passive to the active while we put the participle at the begining of a sentence (for instance: realized to realizing)?


Thanks for brilliant lesson. I have a query…

Main Sentence: The loans, which was distributed from early 2018, the loans were accompanied by a Dollar 15,000 grant to each farmer to buy seedlings from Govt. nurseries.

Short Sentence: Distributed from early 2018, the loans were accompanied by a Dollar 15,000 grant to each farmer to buy seedlings from Govt. nurseries

now can i say this short sentence as reduced adjective clause as well as past participle in passive sentence? Seeking your guidance here.


Thanks Adam and I have a question:
“ But officials remain optimistic, saying they are confident the rail link will not incur a loss.” Is “saying”in this sentence a participle?
Thank you.


7/9 Thanks, Adam!


Hello, how do I classify between Participial standing in front of the sentence and Reduced adverb clause? Are there any ways to remember? Thanks :)

Jason Seng

sir, you said on that video that ” wearing is an activity but to wear is an idea and so forth,when you told that i didnt understand, can you get me more understand on word which is activity just like “wearing” and an idea just like “to wear”? thank you sir you helped me a lot

Ryan Siahaan

    im from indonesian by the way sir, help me please to get more understand

    Ryan Siahaan

Thank you Adam

Masoud moslemi

Hi Adam thank you for the video! I have a question. Can I said “Marie, standing near the window, could see the entire village”?
or is it correct only “Standing near the window, Marie could see the entire village?.
Thank you


” In its early form, as employed by Levi-Strauss and other writers in the 1950s and 1960s, Structuralism cuts across the traditional disciplinary areas ……..”. In the above sentece,Has “as employed “been used as participle.

monaim knight

Hi Adam,
should it be
The marine, who dressed in his class-A uniform, looked like a recruitment poster?

Thank you


This is my first time taking the airport train.

I meet this sentence while learning English. I guess this sentence ommited some connections. What is the structure of this sentence. Is this adverb participle?


Hi Adam,I am new at this website,I don’t know how others respectable teachers teach but seriously,appreciate you on your hardwork.I took this test and got 8/9 but it doesn’t matter as a beginner,hoping to get better in the future.

Muhammad Usman Haider

great job


Thanks a lot Adam , your lessons are informative and understandable


I always filter my searchs by adam


Oh! I gonna crazy with teacher Adam’s teaching. He is so awesome to teach Grammatical English. I have received so much stuff from him. Thanks a lot for producing excellent teaching.

Nartjaree P.

I got 8 correct out of 9.

Nartjaree P.

Hi Adam! Thank you for the great work you do for all of us. I am sorry, bu I am lost in the participles, clauses and gerund. Could you tell me what is the difference between: participles and subordinate clause? And what is the difference between active participle and gerund? Thank you.


I am still not sure when participle phrase functions as adjective or adverb. Can you make it clear?


Hi Adam. Great learning from you. I`ve been learning a lot with all of you guys. Keep on doing these amazing videos.


Does adverb participles function as adjective modifying subject in main clause? My teacher call it verbal phrase. Does particle phrase function as adjective all the time?


I got 8 out of 9. Thank you Adam for the useful lesson. I confused about Q3.
Keep going!


Thanks, Adam, Although I made 100% in the quiz, I am still confused and want to practice more. Can you make one more lesson on it?

TahseenB Bhutto

Hi Adam. Could you tell me the difference between the object complement and the object of a possessive.(Different ways to use a GERUND). How to identify object complement from others. I’ve found this on Engvid.

1.I saw Jim riding his bike (obj.com)
2.He doesn’t like your bossing him around (obj.of a possessive)

And could you please explain to me the difference between these sentences.(The grammar point)

1. I saw Tony riding his bike.
2. I saw him riding his bike.

3. I saw you coming.
4. I saw you were coming.

5. I saw Tony was riding his bike. (Is this actually a reduced adjective clause? Not sure…)

I’m sure some sentences are wrong, but not sure which ones. Not much information available regarding this on the internet.

Thank you Adam, and love your work. And thanks for the reply on my last question.

Don mk

Hello Adam,
Thanks for you lessons.
I’d like to ask about putting participles with a conjunction, would that be OK


Hello Adam,
Thank you so much for you lessons.
I’d like to ask about putting participles with and without a conjunction, would that be OK if we wrote without a conjunction:
targeted by media, she refused to cooperate
and she, targeted by media, refused to cooperate,


Hello Adam, Thank you so much. But I got 6 out of 9. I’m still a little confused it. I Wanna request you to elaborate it more.


Very important lesson…. Watching the video, I improve my English a lots. Adam Grazie!<3, You Are a Great, Marvellous teacher!


Thanks for the quiz

Kingsley Kunda

Would anybody explain this sentence for me
3. Kelly left the interview __________ confident about her chances.
the right answer was “feeling” but why?


    Hopefully someone could do us a favor answering it.

    Oops, looks like I just replied with the same way as it is used for the answer.


    I have the same question about this but I guess this is a reduction of the adverb clause ” Kelly left the interview because he feels confident about her chances”. Someone give the correct explanation please?


hi,adam,don’t understand question 8 and 9……….


Hi Adam.
I think even without adding anything in the sentence about “Scoring a touchdown,….”, the meaning is still still complete.
Am I missing something?


Thanks for this lesson. I have a question for you about Partciple. Can I use: Having realised that the police were on to him, Bernie quickly moved his millions off shore. Will the thanslation of this sentence change? Will it be correct?


Hi Adam, thanks for this intersting lesson. I would like to know in which case “Knowing can be used as adjective.

Thanks in advance for your answer

Emmanuel Moreno Chinamula

Hi Adam,

I just so confused about how this sentence “Being unsure of what to do next, Paul decided to wait for his boss to give him instructions.” is changed from its adjective clause, could you help me with that, thank you.


Sir, I know the logic in this lesson but, is always verb past form will always consider participle?

Arshad 1122

Although that was a hard lesson, I got 9 out of 9.
tnx Adam


Hi Adam! Can you please explain the grammatical fifferece betweet these two sentences.
1. Battered by hail, the car collapsed.
2. Having americanized, de Nomes became “denim”.

why do not we use ‘having’ at the first case?

Liza Orlova

Thanks Adam.

Hasan Soledad

★A rolling stone gathers no moss.
In these sentence rolling is adjective/participle? What’s the correct option? Please reply me.


Hello Adam! I was quite confused about what you said at the beginning when you are rephrasing the sentence, “The Marine, who was dressed in class uniform, looked like a recruitment poster”. should we need to put a comma before the subject if it’s defining adjective clause ? or it isn’t needed.
Because base on your previous lesson regarding the adjective clause, I Remembered it clearly that you said no need to put a comma if the subject is being identified by the conjunction who.

Thank you, Adam!


8/9! I got a good mark! But I didn’t understand the whole lesson, I need to learn this one more time.

Jerry Gu

Hi there!
Question about one of the examples:
– Realizing that the police were on to him, Bernie quickly moved his millions off shore;
I understand that at first he got the information that the police were on to him and after that he moved his money off shore
So can I say “Having realized that the police were on to him, Bernie quickly moved his millions off shore”.


I got 8/9.it was a nice lesson. Thank you, Adam.


Hello Adam,

I have 2 questions:

Dressed in his finest clothes, Cal went to the party. Can I use “Dressing”?

Realizing that the police were on to him… Can I use “reslized”?

What are the rules of using “ed” / “ing” participles?

Thanks and Happy New Year!!!


    I have the same question ! hahahaah ! Hopelly, someone can clarify them


Hi Adam, how are you doing? Regarding to the last example of an adjective participle: “The station chief was fired, meaning there’s an open position”. I associated this sentence as an adverb clause, since which is also a conjunction. Isn’t it ? How can I differentiate then ?


Hi Adam.How’s it going?I have been trough this lesson it seemed to me a bit tough however your explanation made me deeper comprehension.I’ll use these tips in writing and communication.Thanks a bunch!


Getting 8 of 9 scor, i need more practic, but thank you So much,

Ibne hojat

Great lecture. Could you explain the differences between these two sentences: 1) having read the book, John knew how to respond. 2) Reading the book John knew how to respond. More generally, when do we use having plus past participle in a participle phrase. Thank You.


Hi Adam, thank you for your revealing lesson. There’s a question I want to ask you. These are two sentences that I picked from a novel:
1. People were in and out picking up snacks all day.
2.”Excuse me” said a man approaching the table.
Can I rewrite each one of them into two ways as following:
People were in and out while picking up snacks all day. / People were in and out who were picking up snacks all day.
“Excuse me” said a man while approach the table./ “Excuse me” said a man who is approach the table.
while reading the novel, I had no problem with these two sentences. But after watching your lecture, I really want to analyse them a bit deeper. I am grateful if you can take some time to read my comment and give your advice.

Duy Tran13551

Hello Adam. My name is MariVi. It is very helpful the youtube video about the participles. I hope I get a excelent grade in the test of this topic. Hope you have an awesome day. MariVi

MariVi 1005

I got 8/9

MariVi 1005

I saw this sentence in a book.
He watched her walk away, his heart broken at the thought of losing her.
Is it a adverbial participle or adjective one?
Is it possible that the two subjects are different?


Sorry for my last abrupt question. I meant to say that this lesson is very informative and helpful. Thank you.


Hey, Please tell if I am correct or not.

1. Dressed in his class-A uniform, the marine looked like a recruitment poster.
2. Standing near the window, Marie could see the entire village.

Both are examples of adjective phrase and in both of these sentences, the adjective phrase is identifying the subject and not giving more information about the subjects?

Faria Farasat

I like your teaching way,which is sometime s difficult to understand, but i am watching your video lesson again and again that helps me comprehend. Thanks a lot. I was able to fill my grammarly gap.

Pochoev suhrob


Yildiz Okuturlar

8/9 :) yeyy

sule irem

I have been struggling to learn this subject for a long time, and I finally did. Thank you very much. You’re an awesome teacher. By the way, I got 9/9 ;)


Hi Adam, thanks for giving us beneficial advanced grammar information. Learning new tips from your expertise, at the same time, I am practicing different English issues. I got some advanced grammar topics about “having + V3” from other sources. However, sometimes I am confused about which should I prefer to write correctly in the sentence. I have two sentences that I could not determine which correct is:

*The University of Paris was a famous university in France, and one of the earliest having been established in Europe.

*The University of Paris was a famous university in France, and one of the earliest to have been established in Europe.

If you help me to understand the right one, I will be happy for it.


My score is 8/9.

Bijendra Pandey

Yay… 9/9 :D
Thanks teacher Adam. Always looking forward to new lessons.

Thi Thi Soe

It is very useful for the students.Thank you very much,Adam!

Valentine Kardash

Please tell me if the assessment of the following sentence is correct: “Annoyed by the mosquitos, (adjective phrase) Mr. Smith, Slapping at his neck and face, (adjective phrase) went into his house (adverb phrase) for a while (adverb phrase)” —
thank you.


Thank you Teacher Adam. I got 8/9.

Amira Abdulaziz

The puppy was having a hard time climbing up the stairs.
The puppy was having a hard time trying to climb up the stairs.

I’m so happy I found this video because now I understand that the first sentence I wrote (adverb participle) is just a reduction of the second one.


    I messed that up.

    Let me try again…

    The puppy had a hard time climbing up the stairs.
    The puppy had a hard time while he was climbing up the stairs.


Hi Adam! Pleas I need help
i have an exam for TOEFL Structure grammar 60 Skills
how i can get video’s for this skills
pleas pleas
thank you


It is a great informative video, and I am so grateful to have a teacher like you. I got 8/9. Thus, I have an inquiry about the following question:

3. Kelly left the interview __________ confident about her chances

The answer looks intuitively that the participle should be adverbial, so why the option “because feeling” is wrong while the “feeling” option is correct?


    I think I have found the reason why the “feeling” option is more accurate. Since “Kelly left the interview (feeling) confident about her chances” describes the relationship between the action (leaving) and how did she leave “feeling confident” while because is only used whenever there is a reason-based relationship where it doesn’t apply in this case!Thanks for your explanation. It gave me the underlying details to master this lesson!


Hello and thanks for the useful lesson. Can you please analyze the use of the present participle in the sentence below:
This can also result in them working harder and being more disciplined at school.
Thanks in advance!

Thuy Tien Nguyen

Thanks so much for this lesson!!! For I while, Im being looking how to use the gerund and the past form without the subject.

However, I am not able to find the “original phrase” from this reduction:

Kelly left the interview feeling confident about her chances.

Could you help me? I can think in … “while she was feeling confident”, but it doesn’t sound natural at all.

Thank you in advance.


Hi, Adams. Thank you for your wonderful English lesson videos.
I would like to ask you some questions since i find it very confusing and could not know why they can change the word like this.
1. ” Frances Tiafoe beat him four sets in the fourth round, becoming the first American-born player to beat Nadal at a Grand Slam since he was a teenager.” Source: New York Times –> so “becoming” is technically ” which becomes” or “who became”. If it is “Who became”, should it be placed in the middle?
2. “Djokovic has never been shy about expressing his nontraditional views of science and medicine, and he has stated on multiple occasions his opposition to vaccine mandates, saying vaccination is a private and personal decision that should not be mandated. ” from NYT –> Again, i still find it confusing, because they reduced the clause after the comma and i don’t know which they refer too and since it is from NYT, i still think they are both correct.
Please help me explain those sentences. Thank you in advance Adams!

Lee Hwe

Thank you very much Mr. Adam, I am truly grateful. This course took my English to the next level.


Hi, Adam.
Thanks for the lesson on participle phrase, and I appreciate your help in resolving my confusion. However, there is still something I want to reassure.

1) Walking in the park, she saw her old friend.
Meaning: She saw her old friend while she was walking in the park. ( adverbial)

2) Talking on the phone, he missed his stop.

In this sentence, the participle phrase “talking on the phone” acts as an adverb modifying the verb “missed” and describes the reason why the subject “he” missed his stop.

3) Sitting on the couch, he read the newspaper.
In this sentence, the participle phrase “sitting on the couch” acts as an adverb modifying the verb “read” and describes the position in which the subject “he” was reading the newspaper.

4) Playing in the pool, the children laughed and splashed.

In this sentence, the participle phrase “playing in the pool” acts as an adverb modifying the verbs “laughed” and “splashed” and describes the activity that the children were doing while they laughed and splashed.

However, at the same time, I feel like these participle phrase are identifying the noun as well. So my question is very simple…

Are they adjectival or adverbial?

As per my understanding, they are both depends upon where my focus is. 1) If I emphasis the subject they are modifying, they acts as adjectivals. 2) If my focus is on when/where/how something in the main clause happened, they are adverbials.

I want to know your thought on this. Thanks!


Hi Adam,
This lesson is awesome, thank you so much. However, could you help me to clarify the following question.
I saw some other teachers said you could remove “being” in the participles, so I am wondering if the below two sentences are correct.
(a) Tired out, Jason went to bed early.
→from:Because Jason was tired out, he went to bed early.
(b) A teacher, I used to ride bike to school.
→from: When I was a teacher, I used to ride a bike to school.
Highly appreciate your time and effort.



Got 9/9. Very useful explanation. Thks a lot!


Hi Adam, thanks for the explanation. I have some questions about participle phrases.
As she was shocked by the bad news, she didn’t know what to do next.
Being shocked by the bad news, she didn’t know what to do next. (shocked is an adjective here)
Shocked by the bad news, she didn’t know what to do next. (shocked is past participle here) Are both of them correct? If so, which one is more appropriate here?

Lucy Zaw

Sorry, Adam but i couldn’d understand when i should use active or passive. Can you tell me?


Adam, thanks for your explanation. I would like to understand more about when to use past participle (passive) and when to use present (active) participle. Can you explain that, please?


I’ve got 7 of 9, but still feeling confused

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