Below, you will find a list of the most common irregular verbs in English. An irregular verb is a verb in which the past tense is not formed by adding the normal -ed ending. Irregular verbs have different past and past participle forms that you need to learn and memorize.

Study the list of irregular verbs, following these guidelines:

The base form is used with the simple present tense.
I often forget my umbrella.

The simple past form is used with the simple past tense.
I forgot my umbrella yesterday.

The past participle is used with the perfect tenses, such as present and past perfect.
Oh no! It’s raining and I’ve forgotten my umbrella.

Here are the most common irregular verbs in English, listed alphabetically. To see these verbs grouped by change type, go to: Common Irregular Verbs (grouped by ending pattern). You should know these by heart.

Irregular Verbs in English
Base Form Simple Past Past Participle
arise arose arisen
awake awoke awoken
be was, were been
beat beat beaten
become became become
begin began begun
bend bent bent
bet bet bet
bite bit bitten
bleed bled bled
blow blew blown
break broke broken
bring brought brought
build built built
burn burnt/burned burnt/burned
burst burst burst
buy bought bought
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
come came come
cost cost cost
cut cut cut
dig dug dug
do did done
draw drew drawn
dream dreamed/dreamt dreamed/dreamt
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
fly flew flown
forget forgot forgotten
get got got/gotten
give gave given
go went gone
grow grew grown
have had had
hear heard heard
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
keep kept kept
know knew known
lead led led
learn learnt/learned learnt/learned
leave left left
let let let
lie lay lain
lose lost lost
make made made
meet met met
pay paid paid
put put put
read read read
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
run ran run
say said said
see saw seen
sell sold sold
send sent sent
shoot shot shot
show showed shown
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
sit sat sat
sleep slept slept
speak spoke spoken
spend spent spent
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
swim swam swum
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
understand understood understood
wear wore worn
win won won
write wrote written
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