English spelling can be tricky. Luckily, spelling does follow certain patterns which can help you to learn more easily.

In English grammar, a noun is a person, place or thing. When you refer to one noun, it is considered singular. When you refer to more than one noun, it is considered plural.

The chart below shows the usual changes needed to make nouns plural in English. Please note there are always exceptions.

Type of Noun Plural Rule Singular Noun Plural Noun
most nouns add s cat
student
cats
students
noun ending in vowel + o add s video
radio
videos
radios
noun ending in vowel + y add s toy
day
toys
days
noun ending in
ch, sh, s, x, z
add es church
bench
brush
dish
class
kiss
fox
topaz
buzz
churches
benches
brushes
dishes
classes
kisses
foxes
topazes
buzzes
noun ending in consonant + o add es potato
echo
potatoes
echoes
noun ending in consonant + y drop y
and add ies
baby
army
babies
armies
noun ending in f or fe change f or fe
to ves
thief
life
thieves
lives
irregular nouns that change varies man
woman
child
mouse
foot
tooth
men
women
children
mice
feet
teeth
irregular nouns that stay the same no change deer
sheep
fish
deer
sheep
fish
compound nouns add s to the main noun brother-in-law
secretary of state
brothers-in-law
secretaries of state
noun ending in is
(usually from Greek)
change is to es analysis
crisis
thesis
paralysis
basis
analyses
crises
theses
paralyses
bases
noun ending in us
(usually from Latin)
change us to i cactus
syllabus
fungus
stimulus
cacti
syllabi
fungi
stimuli
noun ending in um change um to a bacterium
medium
bacteria
media
plural noun having no singular forms no change news
scissors
pajamas
pants
eyeglasses
news
scissors
pajamas
pants
eyeglasses

Practice:

Fill in the plurals. You can check yourself using the answers under the list.

# Singular Plural
1 valley
2 leaf
3 crayon
4 match
5 waltz
6 key
7 fix
8 family
9 self
10 wife
11 box
12 oasis




Answers: 1. valleys, 2. leaves, 3. crayons, 4. matches, 5. waltzes, 6. keys, 7. fixes, 8. families, 9. selves, 10. wives, 11. boxes, 12. oases

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Test your understanding of this English lesson

Test your understanding of the English lesson by answering these questions. You will get the answers and your score at the end of the quiz.
Which is correct?

What is the plural of "goose"?

What is the plural of "stitch"?

What is the plural of "sofa"?

Which is correct?

What is the plural of "life"?

Which is correct?

What is the plural of "woman"?


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